On Independence Day-1838, Iowa was officially separated from Wisconsin Territory, decided by an Act of Congress that had been passed earlier that summer – June 12 – in Washington D.C. On that day, July 4, 1838 – the new governor of Iowa Territory, Robert Lucas, announced that Burlington would remain as the “temporary” capital of Iowa, but only until such time when a more centrally-located capital city could be determined. Throughout the region, there was a buzz about the future, and the thought that there would be a new territorial capital brought up a spirit of competition that, sadly, nearly tore the Territory apart just as it was beginning. Read more about this controversy here.
On that same July 4th in 1838, sixty miles northwest of Burlington, in newly-formed Johnson County, a group of pioneers, under the leadership of businessman John Gilbert, held a festive Independence Day celebration on the banks of the Iowa River in their small community known as Napoleon.
In July of 1838, things were really looking up for the good people of Napoleon. In June, the Territorial Legislature in Burlington named John Gilbert’s little city as the “official” county seat for Johnson County, and because Gilbert and his small band of fellow townspeople had diligently pressed for continued recognition – see the story of Johnson County’s first board meeting – Johnson County was also about to be granted a U.S. Post Office – with service to Bloomington (Muscatine), and a new Territorial road that would connect citizens with Oquawka, Illinois – another major port on the Mississippi River. Read more about John Gilbert’s push to make Napoleon an important political player.
It’s at this big July 4, 1838 Independence Day party in Napoleon where Chief Poweshiek, the kind-hearted Meskwaki chief, gave a farewell speech. Knowing full well that he and his tribe were going to be expelled from Johnson County, forced westward by the ever-increasing expansion of white settlements, Poweshiek spoke these powerful words…
I want to live where men are free! Soon I will go to a new home. You will plant corn where my dead sleep, our town, the paths we have made, the flowers we have loved will soon be yours. I have moved many times, I have seen the white man put his foot in the track of the Indian and make the earth into fields and gardens. I know I must go far away and you will be so glad when I am gone. You will soon forget the lodge fires, and the meat of the Indian has ever been free to the stranger.
Sadly, within a year of this speech, Poweshiek’s words would find fulfillment: the Meskwaki tribe will be relocated into central Iowa, John Gilbert – the mastermind of Napoleon, and its first postmaster – will suffer a premature death (March 1839), and his little community of Napoleon will soon meet its demise, as an alternative location just two miles north of his trading post will be chosen for future expansion – a new city named Iowa City.
This transition away from Napoleon actually started on January 21, 1839, when Territorial Governor Robert Lucas issued the following decree:
By early spring 1839, three commissioners – Chauncey Swan, John Ronalds and Robert Ralston – were chosen and soon they were preparing themselves to gather in Johnson County with the assignment to choose an appropriate location for this newly- planned City of Iowa – as it was sometimes called.
Iowa historian Benjamin Shambaugh, in his 1893 book on Iowa City history, offers this overview of these earliest days in Johnson County (above).
On May 1, 1839, two of those commissioners – Chauncey Swan and Robert Ronalds – met in John Gilbert’s trading house in Napoleon to “officially” begin the search. Gilbert had died earlier that spring, but his trading post was still the primary meeting place for pioneers living in Johnson County. It’s estimated that less than 500 white settlers lived in the county at this time, but when Gilbert and his friend, Pleasant Harris, did their sales pitch to Territorial legislators in Burlington back in January of 1838, he told a little “white” lie (excuse the pun), saying the population of Johnson County was “about 1,500” – with Gilbert conveniently failing to mention that 97% of that number came from the three Meskwaki tribes living here in 1838! More details here.
Above is a photo of Chauncey Swan and Jo Myers-Walker’s watercolor of John Gilbert’s Trading Post in Napoleon. Click here to read more about the importance of these early trading posts in Johnson County.
The Midnight Ride of Philip Clark – This is one of the most exciting parts of the early Iowa City story. Click here to read the details.
The next day, May 2, 1839, the search began, ending two days later on a rolling hillside overlooking the Iowa River, just about two miles north of Napoleon. One writer states that the commissioners described the wooded site as “shaped like an amphitheater.”
On May 4, 1839, a small ceremony was held in that “amphitheater” with a surveyor’s stake or wooden slab being driven into the ground. Historian Benjamin Shambaugh states it this way…
As best we know, this “post or slab” that Swan and Ronalds drove into the ground on May 4, 1839 has been lost – possibly even removed when construction of the capitol building began later that same year. Historian Bertha Shambaugh sketched what she imagined it might have looked like (above).
Interestingly enough, on this important day when Chauncey Swan drove that stake into the ground in Johnson County, he was fulfilling a vision offered three years earlier by Lieutenant Albert M. Lea in his ground-breaking book, Notes on the Wisconsin Territory Particularly with Reference to The Iowa District or Black Hawk Purchase. Written in 1836 (pp 37-38), Lea found himself discussing the formation of a new capital city called by the name – Iowa.
As a matter of fact, on his 1836 map, which was part of his book, Lea plotted this new City of Iowa on the Mississippi River – located at the mouth of Pine Creek, about ten miles north of Bloomington (Muscatine). Yet, even as he wrote these words calling for a new capital city for the District of Iowa, he also projected that long-term, because of population growth, this new City of Iowa will need to be located further west, in the Iowa River valley – exactly where Iowa City is located today! In the book, The Old Stone Capitol Remembers (1939), Iowa historian, Benjamin Shambugh, explains it well…
Click here to read more about Lt. Albert Lea and the ‘prophetic’ words he wrote about the Iowa River valley in 1836.
The name “Iowa City” appears in the official diary of Theodore S. Parvin, secretary to Governor Robert Lucas, who on May 13th, set out from Bloomington (Muscatine) with the Joseph Williams, Territorial Judge, to attend court for the first time in Johnson County.
Click here to read more about the trail that Parvin & Williams took to arrive in Iowa City.
On May 17th, Parvin sketched out a map of the city in his journal, labeling it… “a map of the City of Iowa.” Later that same year, the Dubuque entrepreneur, John Plumbe, Jr. published his book about Iowa and in it, his map included the “City of Iowa” (see below).
Here’s how one historian reported on what happened in Iowa City in the months following that infamous day when that surveyor’s stake was driven into the ground – May 4, 1839…
On May 7 (1839) the other two commissioners chose (Chauncey) Swan (as) Acting Commissioner of Public Buildings. The Acting Commissioner would be the most directly involved of the commissioners in overseeing the surveying and platting of Iowa City, the selling of city lots, and the hiring of an architect and building contractor for the capitol. He would also give the legislature progress reports. In the summer of 1839 Swan moved with his family to Iowa City and immediately took up his responsibilities. The commissioners had procured surveyors to lay out the capitol, and that summer Swan oversaw the surveys, (finalized) the spot for Capitol Square, and arranged for maps to be made and distributed in preparation for the sale of lots, the receipts going toward the capitol’s construction. Swan coordinated the land sales, which began in August 1839, collected payments, and kept track of receipts.
Click here to read about the sale of the first lots in Iowa City.
On July 4, 1839, another big Independence Day celebration was held. This time, the party wasn’t in Napoleon, but on that beautiful hilltop overlooking the Iowa River. Benjamin Shambaugh continues…
The 21-year-old Ohio-born pioneer, Cyrus Sanders, was present at this July 4, 1839 celebration, writing these beautiful words in his journal (above). Click here to read more from Sander’s 1839 journal.
Read more about Iowa City’s earliest city-wide celebrations here.
Under U.S. law, when a new Territory was established in the west, that territorial government was allowed to choose a full section of land – one square mile or 640 acres – to establish its capital. As we mentioned earlier, in May 1839 – Chauncey Swan and his companions staked out an uncharted piece of wilderness located on the Iowa River – legally called Section 10 – Township 79 North, Range 6 – West 5th Principal Meridian in Johnson County. By July 4, 1839, that piece of land – one square mile – had been drawn out by Judson on the maps you see below.
Iowa City, as it was laid out on L. Judson’s map, was one square mile (640 acres) of land – with 100 surveyed blocks in the center. Each of those city blocks measured approximately 2.35 acres each (320 ft x 320 ft) – and each of the surveyed blocks was sectioned into eight lots measuring 80 x 150 feet.
With six exceptions, the twenty-four streets of Iowa City – which run either east and west (12) or north and south (12) – were designated to be 80 feet wide. The exceptions were Iowa Avenue (120 feet wide) and Washington, Jefferson, Capitol, and Madison (100 feet wide). The 12 north/south streets from west to east are named – Front, Madison, Capitol, Clinton, Dubuque, Linn, Gilbert, Van Buren, Johnson, Dodge, Lucas, and Governor. The 12 east/west streets from north to south were named – Brown, Ronalds, Church, Fairchild, Davenport, Bloomington, Market, Jefferson, Iowa (Avenue), Washington, College, and Burlington.
Click here to read more about the original layout of Iowa City and its street names.
Read about the first four hotel/taverns that were established in the early Iowa City days.
Click here for more about Johnson County remembrance markers.
Issued to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the establishment of the Iowa Territory, the United States Postal Service issued this stamp (below) in 1938, which features the Old Stone Capitol in Iowa City.
Kudos to the amazing resources below for the many quotes, photographs, etc. used on this page.
Chauncey Swan, The Biographical Dictionary of Iowa, U of I Library website
Watershed Days on the Treaty Line 1836-1839, Laura Rigel, The Iowa Review, Vol 39 – Issue 2 Fall, Article 36, 2009.
Iowa City – A Contribution to the Early History of Iowa, Benjamin Shambaugh, State Historical Society of Iowa, 1893, pp 1, 25-29.
Bertha Shambaugh sketch, Clarence Ray (C.R.) Aurner, Leading Events in Johnson County, Iowa – Volume 1, p 125
Johnson County, Iowa and the Counties of Iowa, Remley J. Glass, Klipto Loose-Leaf Co, 1940, p 91
The Old Stone Capitol Remembers, Benjamin F. Shambaugh, 1939, State Historical Society of Iowa, p 53
City of Iowa, Albert Lea, History of Iowa Volume I, Chapter XIV, IAGenWeb.org
The Book That Gave Iowa Its Name, editor Benjamin F. Shambaugh, 1935 reprint of Albert Lea’s 1836 book “Notes on the Wisconsin Territory Particularly with Reference to The Iowa District or Black Hawk Purchase,” State Historical Society of Iowa, pp 37-38
Midnight Ride of Philip Clark, Benjamin F. Shambaugh, Palimpsest, May 1939 Volume 20-Number 5, Article 4
History of Johnson County, Iowa Containing a History of the County, and Its Townships, Cities, and Villages from 1836-1882, author & publisher unknown w/ quotes from early settlers Cyrus Sanders, Henry Felkner, Iowa City, 1883, pp 306-309.
Principle, Interest and Patriotism All Combine: The Fight over Iowa’s Capital City, Silvana R. Siddali, The Annals of Iowa, Volume 64 – Issue 2, Spring 2005, pp 111-138
St. Mary’s Church – Iowa City – Diamond Jubilee, Joseph Fuhrmann, May 21, 1916
Leading Events in Johnson County History, Charles Ray Aurner, Western Historical Press, 1912, p 21
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