In 1804, across the sea,
One Philip Clark, he came to be.
In ’36, he saw the light,
And with his friend, Myers, they fought the good fight.
An Irishman at birth, a Hawkeye at death,
By 1891, a life well-spent.
Forgive the poetry, but with this post being my first about an Irish immigrant who made his way to Iowa City, I felt a wee bit of the blarney rising up in me.
As the story goes, Philip Clark and Eli Myers first met, becoming good friends, in my wife’s old stomping grounds of Elkhart County, Indiana. Apparently both of these men had caught a good case of Western Fever and wanted to pursue owning their own farmland in the new territory that was opening up on the other side of the Great River – a land some were calling Iowa. Click here to read the story of how explorer Albert Lea popularized Iowa’s name.
In the fall of 1836, our two Indiana friends rode their horses 250 miles, from Elkhart to Fort Armstrong (Rock Island, Illinois), understanding that a new land agreement was about to be signed between the United States and the Sauk and Fox nations. The first treaty, the Black Hawk Purchase of 1832, opened up six million acres, and rumor had it that Chief Keokuk was now ready to sell off even more land. Word about this possible agreement had spread throughout the region, drawing many like Clark and Myers, who wanted to be at the head of the line when all this came down.
Click here to read more about the transition of Native American lands in Iowa.
As it turned out, this 1836 conference at Fort Armstrong resulted in a strip of land called the Keokuk Reserve being purchased from the Sauk tribe. Many believed more land would be coming soon, and they were right. By 1837, the Sauk and Fox tribes agreed – under extreme pressure – to sell yet another 1.25 million acres of land immediately west of the existing 1832 Black Hawk Purchase. As you can see from the map below, present day Johnson County is located smack-dab in the middle of all three of these land purchases made between 1832 and 1837.
On this map, the yellow represents the 1832 Black Hawk Purchase, the green stripe is the Keokuk Reserve acquired in 1836, and the blue is the second Black Hawk purchase of 1837. Today’s Johnson County includes land from all three land acquisitions.
Albert Lea’s map of the Johnson County area in 1835 shows John Gilbert’s trading post on the Iowa River with Chief Poweshiek’s camp nearby. Click here for more details.
As it turned out, there was another curious land speculator at Fort Armstrong during that treaty signing in 1836. His name was John Gilbert . . . or should I say that Gilbert was the name that John W. Prentice was using at the time?
You see, since 1835, John Gilbert had been operating a fur-trading post for the American Fur Company on the Iowa River (see map above), living under the radar screen of both the U.S. Government and those creditors back east who were looking to collect on some pretty serious debt Gilbert/Prentice had accumulated through a series of bad business investments.
Click here to read more about John Gilbert, Johnson County’s first permanent white resident.
So, when John Gilbert ran into Eli Myers and Philip Clark at Fort Armstrong, suffice to say that most of their conversations focused on the ground floor opportunities that awaited any brave soul who might be willing to pull up stakes and settle on virgin land that would soon be up for sale! Here’s the way one Johnson County historian tells the story of these three land speculators…
Watercolors of early Johnson County by Jo Myers-Walker. See more here.
So, as the story goes, Philip Clark and Eli Myers, with John Gilbert leading the way, rode their horses over the sixty mile wilderness trail, heading west to Gilbert’s trading post on the Iowa River. Once there, they liked what they saw. Knowing that they were standing on the newly-acquired Keokuk Reserve, with more Meskwaki (Fox) land soon to follow, made for two excited settlers. Combine that with Gilbert’s existing friendship with Meskwaki Chief Powesheik, and you have a perfect scenario for two farmers from Indiana who want to bring their families west to this rich new land called Iowa. Click here to read more about Chief Poweshiek.
As Johnson County historians have recorded, Clark and Myers picked out land surrounding Gilbert’s trading post, put together a couple of roughly-assembled “claim cabins” and headed back to Indiana before the snow started to fly. Gilbert, excited to see more white faces around him, promised to “hold” their claims for his two new friends, keeping other squatters away that might come looking over the winter.
At the first sign of spring, Clark and Myers were headed west, and this time, they came prepared to do some serious farming.
And, as the records show, a good number of other individuals besides Clark and Myers made their way to Gilbert’s new and improved trading post throughout the spring and summer of 1837. Historian A.T. Andreas provides much more details…
As it turned out, Philip Clark became Johnson County’s first real estate mogul by, first, swapping out his original piece of property – 480 acres – for a bigger piece of land – 742 acres – located just north of Gilbert’s new trading post, and constructing first, another “claim cabin,” followed by a two-story frame house. It’s said that Clark, as he took possession of this new land, deemed this little community that was starting to rise on the shores of the Iowa River – Napoleon, honoring the French emperor who once ruled over the Louisiana Territory. To me, that story seems kinda fishy, since Clark was a good Irishman. I’m guessing that John Gilbert, Clark’s trading buddy, who really wanted this Iowa town to become the center of attention, had his hand in this decision as well, lest our first little burg in Johnson County be called Patrick!
This is the lay of the land in May 1839 when Chauncey Swan arrived at John Gilbert’s trading house to begin the search for Iowa’s new territorial capital.
On July 4th, 1838, Napoleon became the county seat of the newly-formed Johnson County and this 2-story farm house (above), built on Philip Clark’s land, became the first County Court House. You can read all about Napoleon’s glory years here.
Below, enjoy the famed Iowa historian, Benjamin F. Shambaugh‘s version of this May 1, 1839 story…
Three days later, on May 4, 1839, on a bluff located about two miles north of Philip Clark’s farmland, Chauncey Swan and John Ronalds drove a stake into the ground, signaling the humble beginnings of Iowa City, Iowa, and the quiet end to Philip Clark’s dream for Napoleon.
In an interesting side-story from 1849, Iowa City artist, George H. Yewell, records in his journal four different arrivals of the Steamboat Herald to Iowa City: on March 24, April 11, April 22, and May 10. On the April 22 arrival, George and several others of his buddies made it down to Philip Clark’s farm, hailed the Herald and got a ride up to the landing at the foot of Capitol Square. According to Yewell, there was “a pleasure party on board from Hannibal.”
By 1849/1850, Gold Fever had exploded across the country and literally thousands of settlers were pulling up stakes, making their way westward to California in the hopes of striking it rich. Chauncey Swan was one of those city leaders who got “The Fever,” organizing a troop of Iowa Citians who headed west in May of 1849. Records show that our two Indiana farmer friends, Philip Clark and Eli Meyers, headed west around that time as well. We’ll let historian Ray Aurner tell you this part of our Irishman’s story…
There’s so much more to Philip Clark’s story after he returned to Iowa City in 1857…
Click here for all of the juicy details, including why a mob of angry Iowa City men murdered Boyd Wilkinson, “a crafty, slippery fellow,” who was hired to push our old Irishman off his property!
The Iowa City Daily Republican – on Sept. 11, 1891 – reported…
THE OLDEST GONE.
Death of Phil. Clark, Johnson County’s First White Settler.
Phil Clark died at his home on the Newport Road, this morning, aged eighty-eight. Though ailing long, he has breasted summer’s heat and winter’s storms, for these many years, and now, with unexpected suddenness, this once sturdy oak topples over, with scarcely a half-day’s warning, for he was around as usual, last night. Phil Clark was the first white settler of Johnson county, and his name will live forever in the county’s archives. A wife and one married daughter survive him.
Here’s a tip of the old hat to Philip Clark, our Indiana farmer, resident Irishman, and long-time Hawkeye. Allow me to close with The Irish Blessing…
Kudos to the amazing resources below for the many quotes, photographs, etc. used on this page.
Midnight Ride of Philip Clark, Benjamin F. Shambaugh, Palimpsest, May 1939 Volume 20-Number 5, Article 4
Napoleon on the Frontier, Jack T. Johnson, Palimpsest – April 1, 1939, pp 114-125
Early Settlers, A.T. Andreas Illustrated Historical Atlas of the State of Iowa, 1875, www.usgwarchives.net
Rivers Attracted Pioneers to Region, Bob Hibbs, IAGenWebProject-Johnson County
Leading Events in Johnson County History, Charles Ray Aurner, Western Historical Press, 1912, pp 4, 6, 19-22, 32
History of Johnson County, Iowa Containing a History of the County, and Its Townships, Cities, and Villages from 1836-1882, author & publisher unknown w/ quotes from early settlers Cyrus Sanders, Henry Felkner, Iowa City, 1883, p 207
Watershed Days on the Treaty Line 1836-1839, Laura Rigel, The Iowa Review, Vol 39 – Issue 2 Fall, Article 36, 2009.
Mob Intent on Lynching, Irving Weber, Historical Stories About Iowa City – Volume 2, Article 114, 1975, pp. 37-40
The Boyd Wilkinson Case, Erik McKinley Eriksson, The Palimpsest, Volume 6, Number 3, Article 3, March 1925, pp. 95-97
Christiana Clark, Find-A-Grave
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